Friday, March 13, 2020
How to Solve Equations With Exponential Decay Functions Exponential functions tell the stories of explosive change. The two types of exponential functions are exponential growth and exponential decay. Four variables- percent change, time, the amount at the beginning of the time period, and the amount at the end of the time period- play roles in exponential functions. This article focuses on how to use an exponential decay function to find a, the amount at the beginning of the time period. Exponential Decay Exponential decay: the change that occurs when an original amount is reduced by a consistent rate over a period of time Heres an exponential decay function: y a(1-b)x y: Final amount remaining after the decay over a period of timea: The original amountx: TimeThe decay factor is (1-b).The variable, b, is percent decrease in decimal form. Purpose of Finding the Original Amount If you are reading this article, then you are probably ambitious. Six years from now, perhaps you want to pursue an undergraduate degree at Dream University. With a $120,000 price tag, Dream University evokes financial night terrors. After sleepless nights, you, Mom, and Dad meet with a financial planner. Your parents bloodshot eyes clear up when the planner reveals an investment with an 8% growth rate that can help your family reach the $120,000 target. Study hard. If you and your parents invest $75,620.36 today, then Dream University will become your reality. How to Solve for the Original Amount of an Exponential Function This function describes the exponential growth of the investment: 120,000 a(1 .08)6 120,000: Final amount remaining after 6 years.08: Yearly growth rate6: The number of years for the investment to growa: The initial amount that your family invested Hint: Thanks to the symmetric property of equality, 120,000 a(1 .08)6 is the same as a(1 .08)6 120,000. (Symmetric property of equality: If 10 5 15, then 15 10 5.) If you prefer to rewrite the equation with the constant, 120,000, on the right of the equation, then do so. a(1 .08)6 120,000 Granted, the equation doesnt look like a linear equation (6a $120,000), but its solvable. Stick with it! a(1 .08)6 120,000 Be careful: Do not solve this exponential equation by dividing 120,000 by 6. Its a tempting math no-no. 1. Use order of operations to simplify. a(1 .08)6 120,000a(1.08)6 120,000 (Parenthesis)a(1.586874323) 120,000 (Exponent) 2. Solve by dividing a(1.586874323) 120,000a(1.586874323)/(1.586874323) 120,000/(1.586874323)1a 75,620.35523a 75,620.35523 The original amount to invest is approximately $75,620.36. 3. Freeze -youre not done yet. Use order of operations to check your answer. 120,000 a(1 .08)6120,000 75,620.35523(1 .08)6120,000 75,620.35523(1.08)6 (Parenthesis)120,000 75,620.35523(1.586874323) (Exponent)120,000 120,000 (Multiplication) Answers and Explanations to the Questions Woodforest, Texas, a suburb of Houston, is determined to close the digital divide in its community. A few years ago, community leaders discovered that their citizens were computer illiterate: they did not have access to the Internet and were shut out of the information superhighway. The leaders established the World Wide Web on Wheels, a set of mobile computer stations. World Wide Web on Wheels has achieved its goal of only 100 computer illiterate citizens in Woodforest. Community leaders studied the monthly progress of the World Wide Web on Wheels. According to the data, the decline of computer illiterate citizens can be described by the following function: 100 a(1 - .12)10 1. How many people are computer illiterate 10 months after the inception of the World Wide Web on Wheels? 100 people Compare this function to the original exponential growth function: 100 a(1 - .12)10y a(1 b)x The variable, y, represents the number of computer illiterate people at the end of 10 months, so 100 people are still computer illiterate after the World Wide Web on Wheels began to work in the community. 2. Does this function represent exponential decay or exponential growth? This function represents exponential decay because a negative sign sits in front of the percent change, .12. 3. What is the monthly rate of change? 12% 4. How many people were computer illiterate 10 months ago, at the inception of the World Wide Web on Wheels? 359 people Use Ã¢â¬â¹order of operations to simplify. 100 a(1 - .12)10 100 a(.88)10 (Parenthesis) 100 a(.278500976) (Exponent) Divide to solve. 100(.278500976) a(.278500976)/(.278500976) 359.0651689 1a 359.0651689 a Use order of operations to check your answer. 100 359.0651689(1 - .12)10 100 359.0651689(.88)10 (Parenthesis) 100 359.0651689(.278500976) (Exponent) 100 100 (Okay, 99.9999999Ã¢â¬ ¦Its just a bit of a rounding error.) (Multiply) 5. If these trends continue, how many people will be computer illiterate 15 months after the inception of the World Wide Web on Wheels? 52 people Plug in what you know about the function. y 359.0651689(1 - .12) x y 359.0651689(1 - .12) 15 Use Order of Operations to find y. y 359.0651689(.88)15 (Parenthesis) y 359.0651689(.146973854) (Exponent) y 52.77319167 (Multiply)
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Issues in International Management - Essay Example Concerning this aspect, the framework incorporates two vital aspects i.e. global integration of the value chain activities and manufacturing of products along with processes in correspondence with the needs of the local market (Cieri & et. al., 2005). In accordance with the context of IHRM, certain prevalent issues can be apparently observed that entail cultural diversity, people management and employee relation among others (Taylor, 2007). Keeping up with these issues, this essay intends to discuss about the various structures being followed by the MNCs/MNEs in order to mitigate the global challenges associated with the applicability of the IHRM. The essay will further discuss upon the IHRM designs been adopted by MNCs and the benefits associated with the structure being framed. Apart from this, the essay will also discuss about various strategies that pursue by the MNEs for global development. According to Howard PerlmutterÃ¢â¬â¢s theory, three patterns of MNCs can be reflected. In this regard, ethnocentric orientation reflects about the management intentions in employing national employees rather than non-native employees. In this respect, the management has the perception that the internal employees are capable of handling operations along with the issues pertaining to the international level. One of the advantages of such orientation is that the valued position is being occupied by the talented nationals rather than the external employees. Apart from this advantage, one of the drawbacks associated with this model is that the MNEs get deprive of practicing diversified culture. Furthermore, the MNEs also get deprive of knowledge from the external source, thereby facing the challenge of international short sightedness. This might create hurdle in mitigating the required global demands (Perlmutter, 2010). One such MNC, which can be apparently observed to comply with ethn ocentric orientation in the form of practicing diversified culture, is Hong Kong
Monday, February 10, 2020
Information Resource Management - Coursework Example Software engineering (SE) refers to the maintaining and developing software systems that perform reliably as well as efficiently. This paradigm develops systems affordable and easy to maintain, as well as satisfy all the requirements that customers want to see in the developed systems. The SDLC (systems development life cycle) the life cycle of software development is employed in systems engineering and software engineering, which is the procedure for modifying and creating systems, methods, and models. In this scenario software engineering is a concept behind the systems development life cycle for different types of software development techniques. These techniques offer a structure for planning as well as monitoring the development of an information system a. Discuss human-computer interfaces. What was the major change from the DOS operating system to the Windows graphical user interface? What likely changes will occur to interfaces in the future? Will virtual reality be a viable means of interfacing with the computer? The human-computer interface is the study of communication among users and computers. It is frequently known as the intersection of behavioral sciences, computer science, design and numerous other fields of study. Interaction among users and computers happens at the user interface that contains both hardware and software. The DOS-based operating system was operational through the command based user interface that was hard to use and complex to maintain. While the development of Windows-based human-computer interfaces offered the graphical user interface (GUI) based interaction that is more interactive and easy to use. In this scenario, virtual reality offers an enhanced means for interaction with the computer that is a most advanced for the human-computer interfaces.Ã
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Apoptosis Short Essay Essay Kerr, Wyllie, and Currie first used the term apoptosis in a paper in 1972 to describe a morphologically distinct form of cell death, although certain components of the apoptosis concept had been described years previously. Our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the process of apoptosis in mammalian cells transpired from the investigation of programmed cell death that occurs during the development of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (Horvitz, 1999). In this organism 1090 somatic cells are generated in the formation of the adult worm, of which 131 of these cells undergo apoptosis or Ã¢â¬Å"programmed cell death. Ã¢â¬ These 131 cells die at particular points during the development process, which is invariant between worms, demonstrating the accuracy and control in this system. Apoptosis has been recognized and accepted as an important mode of Ã¢â¬Å"programmedÃ¢â¬ cell death, which involves the genetically determined elimination of cells. However, there is other forms of programmed cell death have been described and other forms of programmed cell death may yet be discovered Apoptosis occurs normally during development and aging and as a homeostatic mechanism to maintain cell populations in tissues. Apoptosis also occurs as a defense mechanism such as in immune reactions or when disease or noxious agents damage cells. Although there are a wide variety of stimuli and conditions, both physiological and pathological, that can trigger apoptosis, not all cells will necessarily die in response to the same stimulus. Irradiation or drugs used for cancer chemotherapy results in DNA damage in some cells, which can lead to apoptotic death through a p53-dependent pathway. Some hormones, may lead to apoptotic death in some cells although other cells are unaffected or even stimulated. Some cells express Fas or TNF receptors that can lead to apoptosis via ligand binding and protein cross-linking. Other cells have a default death pathway that must be blocked by a survival factor such as a hormone or growth factor. There is also the issue of distinguishing apoptosis from necrosis, two processes that can occur independently, sequentially, as well as simultaneously (Zeiss, 2003). In some cases itÃ¢â¬â¢s the type of stimuli and/or the degree of stimuli that determines if cells die by apoptosis or necrosis. At low doses, a variety of injurious stimuli such as heat, radiation,Ã hypoxia and cytotoxic anticancer drugs can induce apoptosis but these same stimuli can result in necrosis at higher doses. Finally, apoptosis is a coordinated and often energy-dependent process that involves the activation of a group of cysteine proteases called Ã¢â¬Å"caspasesÃ¢â¬ and a complex cascade of events that link the initiating stimuli to the final demise of the cell Loss of contro l of apoptosis may result in disease. Excessive apoptosis is implicated in AIDS and Alzheimers disease and insufficient apoptosis may lead to cancer. Morphology of Apoptosis Light and electron microscopy have identified the various morphological changes that occur during apoptosis. During the early process of apoptosis, cell shrinkage and pyknosis are visible by light microscopy. With cell shrinkage, the cells are smaller in size, the cytoplasm is dense and the organelles are more tightly packed. Pyknosis is the result of chromatin condensation. On examination with hematoxylin and eosin stain, apoptosis involves single cells or small clusters of cells. The apoptotic cell appears as a round/oval mass. Plasma membrane blebbing occurs followed by karyorrhexis and separation of cell fragments into apoptotic bodies during a process called Ã¢â¬Å"budding.Ã¢â¬ Apoptotic bodies consist of cytoplasm with tightly packed organelles with or without a nuclear fragment. The organelle integrity is maintained and all of this is enclosed within an intact plasma membrane. These bodies are subsequently phagocytosed by macrophages, or neoplastic cells and degraded within phagolysosomes. Macrophages that engulf and digest apoptotic cells are called Ã¢â¬Å"tingible body macrophagesÃ¢â¬ and are found within the germinal centers of lymphoid follicles or within the thymic cortex. There is no inflammatory reaction with the process of apoptosis nor with the removal of apoptotic cells because: (1) apoptotic cells do not release their cellular constituents into the surrounding interstitial tissue; (2) they are quickly phagocytosed by surrounding cells thus likely preventing secondary necrosis; and, (3) the engulfing cells do not produce anti-inflammatory cytokines. Distinguishing Apoptosis from Necrosis The alternative to apoptotic cell death is necrosis, which is considered to be a toxic process where the cell is a passive victim and follows an energy independent mode of death. Oncosis is used to describe a process that leads to necrosis with karyolysis and cell swelling whereas apoptosis leads to cell death with cell shrinkage, pyknosis, and karyorrhexis. Although the mechanisms and morphologies of apoptosis and necrosis differ, there is overlap between these two processes. Necrosis and apoptosis represent morphologic expressions of a shared biochemical network described as the Ã¢â¬Å"apoptosis-necrosis continuumÃ¢â¬ .For example, two factors that will convert an ongoing apoptotic process into a necrotic process include a decrease in the availability of caspases and intracellular ATP Whether a cell dies by necrosis or apoptosis depends in part on the nature of the cell death signal, the tissue type, the developmental stage of the tissue and the physiologic milieu (Zeiss, 2003). It is not always easy to distinguish apoptosis from necrosis, they can occur simultaneously depending on factors such as the intensity and duration of there stimulus, the extent of ATP depletion and the availability of caspases (Zeiss, 2003). Necrosis is an uncontrolled and passive process that usually affects large fields of cells whereas apoptosis is controlled and energy-dependent and can affect individual or clusters of cells. Necrosis is caused by factors external to the cell or tissue, such as infection, toxins, or trauma that result unregulated digestion of cell components Some of the major morphological changes that occur with necrosis include cell swelling; formation of cytoplasmic vacuoles; distended endoplasmic reticulum; formation of cytoplasmic blebs; condensed, swollen or ruptured mitochondria; disaggregation and detachment of ribosomes; disrupted organelle membranes; swollen and ruptured lysosomes; and eventually disruption of the cell membrane. This loss of cell membrane results in the release of the cytoplasmic contents into the surrounding tissue, sending chemotatic signals with eventual recruitment of inflammatory cells. Because apoptotic cells do not release their cellular constituents into theÃ surrounding tissue and are quickly phagocytosed by macrophages or normal cells, there is essentially no inflammatory reaction. It is also important to note that pyknosis and karyorrhexis are not exclusive to apoptosis (Kurosaka et al., 2003). Mechanisms of Apoptosis The mechanisms of apoptosis are highly complex involving an energy dependent cascade of molecular events. Research indicates that there are two main apoptotic pathways: the extrinsic or death receptor pathway and the intrinsic or mitochondrial pathway. However, there is now evidence that the two pathways are linked and that molecules in one pathway can influence the other. There is an additional pathway that involves T-cell mediated cytotoxicity and perforin-granzyme dependent killing of the cell. The perforin/granzyme pathway can induce apoptosis via either granzyme B or granzyme A. The extrinsic, intrinsic, and granzyme B pathways converge on the same execution pathway. This pathway is initiated by the cleavage of caspase-3 and results in DNA fragmentation, degradation of cytoskeletal and nuclear proteins, crosslinking of proteins, formation of apoptotic bodies, expression of ligands for phagocytic cell receptors and finally uptake by phagocytic cells. Caspases have proteolytic activity and are able to cleave proteins at aspartic acid residues, although different caspases have different specificities involving recognition of neighboring amino acids. Once caspases are initially activated, there seems to be an irreversible commitment towards cell death. To date, ten major caspases have been identified and broadly categorized into initiators (caspase-2,-8,-9,-10), effectors or executioners (caspase-3,-6,-7) and inflammatory caspases (caspase-1,-4,-5). Caspase-11, which is reported to regulate apoptosis and cytokine maturation during septic shock, caspase-14, which is highly expressed in embryonic tissues but not in adult tissues . Extensive protein cross-linking is another characteristic of apoptotic cells and is achieved through the expression and activation of tissue transglutaminase. Another feature is the expression of cell surface markers that result in the early phagocytic recognition of apoptotic cells by adjacent cells, permittingÃ quick phagocytosis with minimal compromise to the surrounding tissue. This is achieved by the movement of the normal inward-facing phosphatidylserine of the cellÃ¢â¬â¢s lipid bilayer to expression on the outer layers of the plasma membrane. Externalization of phosphatidylserine is a well-known recognition ligand for phagocytes on the surface of the apoptotic cell. PATHWAYS Extrinsic PathwayÃ¢â¬âThe extrinsic signaling pathways that initiate apoptosis involve transmembrane receptor-mediated interactions. These involve death receptors that are members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor gene superfamily. Members of the TNF receptor family share similar cyteine-rich extracellular domains and have a cytoplasmic domain of about 80 amino acids called the Ã¢â¬Å"death domainÃ¢â¬ . This death domain plays a critical role in transmitting the death signal from the cell surface to the intracellular signaling pathways.The sequence of events that define the extrinsic phase of apoptosis are best characterized with the FasL/FasR and TNF-Ã ±/TNFR1 models. In these models, there is clustering of receptors and binding with the homologous trimeric ligand. Upon ligand binding, cytoplasmic adapter proteins are recruited which exhibit corresponding death domains that bind with the receptors. The binding of Fas ligand to Fas receptor results in the binding of the adapter protein FADD and the binding of TNF ligand to TNF receptor results in the binding of the adapter protein TRADD with recruitment of FADD and RIP. FADD then associates with procaspase-8 via dimerization of the death effector domain. At this point, a death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) is formed, resulting in the auto-catalytic activation of procaspase-8 . Once caspase-8 is activated, the execution phase of apoptosis is triggered. Death receptor mediated apoptosis can be inhibited by a protein called c-FLIP which will bind to FADD and caspase-8, rendering them ineffective. Another point of potential apoptosis regulation involves a protein called Toso, which shows to block Fas-induced apoptosis in T cells via inhibition of caspase-8 processing . Intrinsic PathwayÃ¢â¬âThe intrinsic signaling pathways that initiate apoptosis involve a diverse array of non-receptor-mediated stimuli that produceÃ intracellular signals that act directly on targets within the cell and are mitochondrial-initiated events. The stimuli that initiate the intrinsic pathway produce intracellular signals that may act in either a positive or negative fashion. Negative signals involve the absence of certain growth factors, hormones and cytokines that can lead to failure of suppression of death programs, thereby triggering apoptosis. In other words, there is the withdrawal of factors, loss of apoptotic suppression, and subsequent activation of apoptosis. Other stimuli that act in a positive fashion include, but are not limited to, radiation, toxins, hypoxia, hyperthermia, viral infections, and free radicals. All of these stimuli cause changes in the inner mitochondrial membrane that results in an opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, loss of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential and release of two main groups of normally sequestered pro-apoptotic proteins from the intermembrane space into the cytosol. The first group consists of cytochrome c, Smac/DIABLO, and the serine protease HtrA2/Omi. These proteins activate the caspase dependent mitochondrial pathway. Cytochrome c binds and activates Apaf-1 as well as procaspase-9, forming an Ã¢â¬Å"apoptosomeÃ¢â¬ The clustering of procaspase-9 leads to caspase-9 activation. Smac/DIABLO and HtrA2/Omi are reported to promote apoptosis by inhibiting IAP activity. Additional mitochondrial proteins interact with and suppress the action of IAP The second group of pro-apoptotic proteins, AIF, endonuclease G and CAD, are released from the mitochondria during apoptosis, but this is a late event that occurs after the cell has committed to die. AIF translocate to the nucleus and causes DNA fragmentation and condensation of peripheral nuclear chromatin. This early form of nuclear condensation is referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"stage IÃ¢â¬ condensation. Endonuclease G also translocates to the nucleus where it cleaves nuclear chromatin to produce oligonucleosomal DNA fragments. AIF and endonuclease G both function in a caspase-independent manner. CAD is released from the mitochondria and translocates to the nucleus where, after cleavage by caspase-3, it leads to oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation and a more pronounced and advanced chromatin condensation. This later and moreÃ pronounced chromatin condensation is referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"stage IIÃ¢â¬ condensation The control and regulation of these apoptotic mitochondrial events occurs through members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins .The tumor suppressor protein p53 has a critical role in regulation of the Bcl-2 family of proteins.The Bcl-2 family of proteins governs mitochondrial membrane permeability and can be either pro-apoptotic or antiapoptotic. 25 genes have been identified in the Bcl-2 family. Some of the anti-apoptotic proteins include Bcl-2, Bcl-x, Bcl-XL, Bcl-XS and some of the pro-apoptotic proteins include Bcl-10, Bax, Bad, Bim, and Blk. These proteins can determine if the cell commits to apoptosis or aborts the process. It is thought that the main mechanism of action of the Bcl-2 family of proteins is the regulation of cytochrome c release from the mitochondria. Mitochondrial damage in the Fas pathway of apoptosis is mediated by the caspase-8 cleavage of Bid. This is one example of the Ã¢â¬Å"cross-talkÃ¢â¬ between the death-receptor (extrinsic) pathway and the mitochondrial (intrinsic) pathway. Serine phosphorylation of Bad is associated with 14-3-3, a member of a family of multifunctional phosphoserine binding molecules. When Bad is phosphorylated, it is trapped by 14-3-3 and sequestered in the cytosol but once Bad is unphosphorylated, it will translocate to the mitochondria to release cytochrome C. Bad can also heterodimerize with Bcl-Xl or Bcl-2, neutralizing their protective effect and promoting cell death When not sequestered by Bad, both Bcl-2 and BclXl inhibit the release of cytochrome C from the mitochondria. Reports indicate that Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL inhibit apoptotic death primarily by controlling the activation of caspase proteases. An additional protein designated Ã¢â¬Å"AvenÃ¢â¬ appears to bind both Bcl-Xl and Apaf-1, thereby preventing activation of procaspase-9. Puma and Noxa are two members of the Bcl2 family that are also involved in pro-apoptosis. Puma plays an important role in p53-mediated apoptosis. It was shown that, in vitro, overexpression of Puma is accompanied by increased BAX expression, BAX conformational change, translocation to theÃ mitochondria, cytochrome c release and reduction in the mitochondrial membrane potential. Noxa is also a mediator of p53-induced apoptosis. Studies show that this protein can localize to the mitochondria and interact with anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members, resulting in the activation of caspase-9. Caspase-3 is the most important of the executioner caspases and is activated by any of the initiator caspases (caspase-8, caspase-9, or caspase-10). Caspase-3 specifically activates the endonuclease CAD. In proliferating cells CAD is complexed with its inhibitor, ICAD. In apoptotic cells, activated caspase-3 cleaves ICAD to release CAD. CAD then degrades chromosomal DNA within the nuclei and causes chromatin condensation. Caspase-3 also induces cytoskeletal reorganization and disintegration of the cell into apoptotic bodies. Gelsolin, an actin binding protein, has been identified as one of the key substrates of activated caspase-3. Caspase-3 will cleave gelsolin and the cleaved fragments of gelsolin, in turn, cleave actin filaments in a calcium independent manner. This results in disruption of the cytoskeleton, intracellular transport, cell division, and signal transduction. Phagocytic uptake of apoptotic cells is the last component of apoptosis. Phospholipid asymmetry and externalization of phosphatidylserine on the surface of apoptotic cells and their fragments is the hallmark of this phase. The mechanism of phosphatidylserine translocation to the outer leaflet of the cell during apoptosis has been associated with loss of aminophospholipid translocase activity and nonspecific flip-flop of phospholipids of various classes. Research indicates that Fas, caspase-8, and caspase-3 are involved in the regulation of phosphatidylserine externalization on oxidatively stressed erythrocytes however caspase-independent phosphatidylserine exposure occurs during apoptosis of primary T lymphocytes. The appearance of phosphotidylserine on the outer leaflet of apoptotic cells then facilitates noninflammatory phagocytic recognition, allowing for their early uptake and disposal.This process of early and efficient uptake with noÃ release of cellular constituents, results in no inflammatory response. (Fadok et al., 2001). The process for apoptosis, is generally characterized by distinct morphological characteristics and energy-dependent biochemical mechanisms. Apoptosis is considered a vital component of various processes including normal cell turnover, proper development and functioning of the immune system, hormone-dependent atrophy, embryonic development and chemical-induced cell death. Inappropriate apoptosis (either too little or too much) is a factor in many human conditions including neurodegenerative diseases, ischemic damage, autoimmune disorders and many types of cancer. Excessive apoptosis results in diseases such as Alzheimers disease, Parkinsons disease. Cancer is an example where the normal mechanisms of cell cycle regulation are dysfunctional, with either an over proliferation of cells and/or decreased removal of cells. Tumor cells can acquire resistance to apoptosis by the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins such as Bcl-2 or by the down-regulation or mutation of pro-apoptotic proteins such as Bax. The expression of both Bcl-2 and Bax is regulated by the p53 tumor suppressor gene Alterations of various cell signaling pathways can result in dysregulation of apoptosis and lead to cancer. The p53 tumor suppressor gene is a transcription factor that regulates the cell cycle and is the most widely mutated gene in human tumorigenesis. The critical role of p53 is evident by the fact that it is mutated in over 50% of all human cancers. p53 can activate DNA repair proteins when DNA has sustained damage, can hold the cell cycle at the G1/S regulation point on DNA damage recognition, and can initiate apoptosis if the DNA damage proves to be irreparable. Tumorigenesis can occur if this system goes awry. If the p53 gene is damaged, then tumor suppression is severely reduced. The p53 gene can be damaged by radiation, various chemicals, and viruses.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
A Feminist Reading of The Yellow Wallpaper Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In the late nineteenth century, after the American social and economic shift commonly referred to as the "Industrial Revolution" had changed the very fabric of American society, increased attention was paid to the psychological disorders that apparently had steamed up out of the new smokestacks and skyscrapers in urban populations (Bauer, 131).Ã These disorders were presumed to have been born out of the exhaustion and "wear and tear" of industrial society (Bauer, 131-132).Ã An obvious effect of these new disorders was a slew of physicians and psychiatrists advocating one sort of cure or another, although the "rest cure" popularized by the physician S. Weir Mitchell was the most embraced (Bauer, 131; Saur, 151-152).Ã However, while the "rest cure" for men involved physical exercise and leisure activities, the cure for women was a suffocating slice of seclusion, bed rest, and no intellectual activity (Bauer, 131). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Charlotte Perkins Gilman, a renowned feminist and author, was one of the women affected with "...a severe and continuous nervous breakdown tending to melancholia..," which was commonly termed as "neurasthenia" (Gilman, 348-349).Ã However, rather than cure her, Mitchell's "rest cure" nearly drove her insane.Ã As a result of her maddening experience away from writing and almost all intellectual thought, she wrote her short story, "The Yellow Wallpaper" not "...to drive people crazy," but instead to "...save people from being driven crazy" (Gilman, 349).Ã Although her purpose in writing the story is clear, one can not help but wonder if she was motivated solely by her protest to nineteenth century medical practice or by her protest to the legal and socia... ... Boston/New York:Ã Bedford/St. Martin's, 1998.Ã 130-132. Gilman, Charlotte Perkins.Ã "The Yellow Wallpaper." The Yellow Wallpaper.Ã Ed. Dale M. Bauer.Ã Boston/New York:Ã Bedford/St. Martin's, 1998.Ã 41-58. Gilman, Charlotte Perkins.Ã "Why I Wrote The Yellow Wallpaper?" The Yellow Wallpaper.Ã Ed. Dale M. Bauer.Ã Boston/New York:Ã Bedford/St. Martin's, 1998. 348-349. Mitchell, S. Weir.Ã "From Wear and Tear, or Hints for the Overworked." The Yellow Wallpaper.Ã Ed. Dale M. Bauer.Ã Boston/New York:Ã Bedford/St. Martin's, 1998. 134-141. Saur, Prudence B.Ã "From Maternity; A Book for Every Wife and Mother." The Yellow Wallpaper.Ã Ed. Dale M. Bauer. Boston/New York:Ã Bedford/St. Martin's, 1998. 151- 155. Williams, William C.Ã "Old Doc Rivers."Ã The Doctor Stories.Ã Ed. Robert Coles.Ã New York:Ã New Directions Publishing Corporation, 1984.Ã 13-41.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Acknowledgement The Family gratefully acknowledges and appreciates the cards, flowers, telephone call, visits and other kind deeds and expressions The Family Sometimes itÃ¢â¬â¢s hard to understand Why certain things must be And the reason why it happens Are often hard to see. To some, you may be forgotten To others just a part of the past But to us who loved you and lost you, Your memory will always last. The Children Tommy Glover January 14, 1956 Ã¢â¬â December 21, 2009 What we have done for ourselves alone dies with us; what we have done for others and the world remains and is immortal. Ã¢â¬ Albert Pike Celebration of Tommy Saturday December 26, 2009 Pensacola Beach, Pensacola Fl Obituary Thomas Glover was born January 14, 1956. He was the son of James and Irene Glover. He departed this life December 21, 2009 at his home in Pensacola FL. He leaves to cherish his loving memories: Five Children, Malissa (Joshua) Williams, Of Wallingford CT Jeannette Glover of West Haven CT, T ommy Glover of Milford CT, Trisha Glover New Haven CT.He also leaves his loving fiance Mary Freeman and three siblings. Joseph Glover (brother) Bridgeport CT, James Glover Jr. (brother) of Hemingway NC, Ann Glover (sister) of Bridgeport CT Five grandchildren, Barden Michaels, Tommy Glover 3rd, Nathan Glover, Elijah Glover, Taylor Thomas, Ajiana Williams I believe that imagination is stronger than knowledge, that myth is more potent that history. I believe that dreams are more powerful than facts Ã¢â¬â that hope always triumphs over experience Ã¢â¬â that laughter is the only cure for grief.And I believe that love is stronger than death Ã¢â¬â From one of Dads favorite movie, The Crow Opening SongÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦I'm Your Angel- R. Kelly and Celine Dion PrayerÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Evangelist James Glover Scriptu res: Old TestamentÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. Rev. Charletta Johnson New TestamentÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. Rev. Charletta Johnson SoloÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Sarah Freeman Words from the children Remarks from friends and familyAcknowledgmentsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. James Glover SongÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Angel Ã¢â¬â Sarah McLachlan Song Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. One Sweet Day Mariah Carey Boyz 2 Men EulogyÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. Rev. Charleeta Johnson Release of dovesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. Children Benediction Please Join us at the Home of are Late Father as we being to celebrate his eternal life
Monday, January 6, 2020
Comparison of Lean Approach and Conventional Approach of Operations and Supply Chain Management ABSTRACT Operations and supply chain management is a concept that has flourished in domains such as manufacturing and express industry by offering a methodology to solve and relieve waste problems. There are two main approaches in operations and supply chain management: lean approach and conventional approach. In this assignment, I will compare the two approaches by summarizing their characteristics and analyzing the strengths and weaknesses of each approach. Finally, I will discuss the key problems faced by transitioning from conventional to lean approach. KEY WORDS Lean approach, operations and supply chain management, conventional approach,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦2. CONVENTIONAL METHOD Traditionally, operations and supply chain management has focused primarily on a push based strategy. Companies typically produce products or services and then release these products or services into the supply chain. Henry Ford and Frederick Taylor are very typical and important persons for the development of the traditional approach of the supply chain management. 2.1 Taylor and Scientific Management Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915) is known as a lead developer of scientific management. As a manufacturing manager, a mechanical engineer, and later a management consultant in American, Taylor spent his life to find out ways to improve industrial efficiency. In the book The Principles of Scientific Management (Taylor, 1914), he revealed and summarized his efficient and effective principles as well as techniques. Scientific Science is summarized as consisting of the following four principles (Taylor, 1914): Ã¯â · A science should be developed for each element of human s work. Ã¯â · Workers should be scientifically selected, trained, taught, and then developed. Ã¯â · Managers should cooperate with the workers to ensure them behave in accordance with developed principles from science. Ã¯â · Responsibility between managers and workers should be divided almost equally. 2.2 Henry Ford and Mass Production HenryShow MoreRelatedToyota944 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesTOYOTAÃ¢â¬â¢S OPERATIONS STRATEGY Lean Manufacturing ToyotaÃ¢â¬â¢s lean manufacturing has enabled the company to focus on consistent design and responsive approach to production operation. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s workforce is self-directed and motivated by output based measures and customer oriented criteria. The concepts of just in time (JIT), Kanban and respect for employees together with expedited problem solving approach (automated error correcting) has enabled the company to pursue lean innovations. Lean manufacturingRead MoreWarehousing And Distribution Are Critical Parts Of The Global Supply Chain1638 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWarehousing and distribution are critical parts of the global supply chain. 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